The application of the "electronic government" is one of the most trending and simplest forms of ICT ("Information and Communication Technology") application used for governmental services. In spite of the significant advantage and benefit sobtained from the e-government, various nations have failed to fully utilize the advantages and successfully implement the system. This paper evaluated the critical factors that impact and determines the failure and success of the e-government implementation project. The article focuses on the investigation of the e-government implementation case in Jordan. The various technical challenges and issues have been identified that has finally lead to the inefficient development and application of the e-government system. The evaluation of the strategies used by the Jordan e-government project team has helped in identification of the technical issues like privacy, security, integrity, reliability, interoperability, cloud management, and content management system. Based on the identified issues, an enhanced model for e-government has been proposed with data authentication, encryption and manyother techniques for overcoming the technical issues.
In the field of Information technology, the development of the e-government is considered as a new area concerned with the utilization if the ICT for delivering the governmental services to the citizens. The e-government system comprises various technologies including mobile computing, the internet and wide area network for providing real-time services and solution to the citizens. Bakunzibake, Grönlund, and Klein, (2016) showed that the United Nations described e-government as the application and utilization of the "Information and Communication Technology" for provisioning the public services and information to the public. The implementation of the e-government helps in including various advanced concepts like citizen participation, accountability, and transparency in evaluating the performance of the e-government.
According to Solinthone, and Rumyantseva, (2016), in the recent days, Jordon is recognized as one of the developing countries that took the initiatives of including the Governmental payment and transactions through an electronic medium. Weerakkody et al., (2015) illustrated that the development of the e-government has failed to live up to the expectation and potential. This paper evaluates the issues with the implementation of the Jordan e-government system and provides relevant solutions to them.
2. Identification of the issues in the e-governance in Jordan and USA
2.1. E-government strategies usedby Jordan
The development of the e-government strategy aims at linking the governmental procedure of Jordan with national priorities. The development and implementation of the e-government in Jordan have been developed for dedicating the governmental services to the citizen across the location and society. The e-government strategy helps in crystallizing the projects, governmental services to the citizens while raisingand controlling the performance and operations through the e-government services. The developed e-government system at Jordon aimed at increasing the effort of government initiative within the time span of three years between 2014 to 2016
The implementation and development of the e-government platforms require large capital, technical infrastructure for training, hardware implementation and software. Choi et al., (2016) showed that in the developing countries the implementation of the e-government needs to been sured with a financial option in the long term. The Jordanian e-government system was based on cloud technology for providing complete associability and security to the information shared through the system.
Privacy and Security: Abdulkareem, (2015) cited that ensuring privacy and security in the cloud platform is one of the crucial challenged during the development of the e-government system. Data integrity, data availability and data confidentiality are the major criteria for privacy and security. Joseph, (2015) illustrated enabling and ensuring the security in the cloud government helps in establishing trust and reliability of the citizen for using the system. Therefore, the implementation of the e-government system is often considered as a development of cloud application for ensuring the security requirements of the transaction and processes involved in the e-government. The e-government network often suffered from the various threats and virus attacks that volatile the requirements of security within thee-government system. One of thes ignificant and most common attacks on the e-governments system is DoS (Denial of Service). Bwalya, Du Plessis, and Rensleigh, (2014) showed other significant attacks in the e-government system are U2L, U2R, and probe. In addition to that, the data and information relevant to the citizen of Jordanare controlled and stored by the third party rather than the government itself.
Integrity: According to Wirtz et al., (2015), maintaining the consistency and accuracy of the data and information stored and communicated within the system forms significant issues in maintaining the integrity of data. Chatfield, and AlAnazi, (2015) illustrated that integrity is avital criterion for data storage and databases. The data integrity requires implementation of significant processes for ensuring the data reliability and accuracy throughout the lifetime of the data.
Reliability: Rahman et al., (2014) cited that maintaining the reliability of the data in the cloud based E-government system is forms a major issue during development. Ensuring the operational infrastructure is essential for ensuring the data accessibility in unexpected and catastrophic situations.
Interoperability issues: Various services providers collaborate together for ensuring the proper services being provided to the customer. In the e-government system, the governed needs to include the banking services, and various public services procedure for ensuring proper functionality and operations to the citizen.
Managing Cloud: The developed e-government system needs to provide seamless availability andaccessibility of the services and information to the citizen. The functions and operations used in the e-government need to be regularly changed or updated for the change in the requirement of the citizen and the government itself. The updating of the entire process and functions within the system without the involvement of the government by the third party is a risky task while ensuring no data loss from the system.
Content Management System: The e-government system includes various operations and functional modules for providing all the required governmental procedure and functionalities to the citizen. The inappropriate deployment of the “content management system” for maintaining the different modules within the e-government system. Snead, and Wright, (2014) have shown that not all the citizens are experts in e-payments. Therefore, the designer needs to ensure the applicator of appropriate style and design for enhancing the visually and constant structure throughout all the pages in the system.
An enhanced model has been proposed in this assignment for reducing and eliminating the potential issues identified in the previous section. The proposed model has been developed with “system feedback process” that ensured the proper functionality and operations conducted through the developed e-government system. The proposed model of e-government while eliminating the technical difficulties observed in the Jordan E-government project has been proposed in the section below:
Figure 1: Proposed e-government model
(Source: Created by Author)
The database of the proposed system needs to be robust for storing the argument details, profile data, and banking details. The database will be developed over the cloud system for ensuring the accurate and faster queries of the system. The proposed system will run on SQL Server 2008 for retrieving and storing the sensitive information. The developed e-government includes particular comparison algorithm for efficient searching of the elements and services through the entire e-government system.
The time complexity of the proposed model will be the following:
According to Zhang, Xu, and Xiao, (2014), the application of the appropriate search algorithm in the e-governmental system helps in enhancing the performance of the developed system. In the proposed system, Lexical Method will be used as the required search algorithm. The matching system of the lexical similarity has been defined in WordNet and performed in synset (Ziemba, & Papaj, 2013). The e-government system will include a lexical dictionary for all the available governmental services provided to the citizen. The searching of a particular word in the system will begin with comparison with all the word available in the system. The pseudo code for the lexical similarity has been described as follows:
In addition to that, the SO values of the words compared to the system are derived and calculated using the PMI (Pointwise Mutual Information) methods (Elbahnasawy, 2014). The PMI calculated for the proposed model can be described as:
The application of the above stated methods will be utilized for comparing the two words. According to proposed formula, the probability of the getting the positive results of comparing the two words is true if the value provides value if base-2 log (Wilson, 2014). The application of the appropriate comparison algorithm helps in ensuring the reliability of searches and data applicability in the e-government system.
In addition to that, in the proposed system, Three-tier techniques will be sued for developing the page building system in the e-government system. The application of the Three-tier techniques helps in strengthen and enhancing the security of the services and database used in the developed e-government model (Chairunisa, Malik, & Rahman, 2016). The three tire techniques sub-divided the entire system into three major level or tire namely, intermediate tier, application tier and database tier. The database tier in the system has been used for storing and extracting the raw data from the database to the developed system. Further, the application tier enhanced the interface between the user and the client (Khamallag, Kamala, & Tassabehji, 2016). Therefore, during modifications or updating of the systems or application, the other module that is application and the database will not be affected by the other.
For ensuring interaction between the citizen and e-government system, the service providers needs to implement the"Hypertext Transfer Protocol" (HTTP) for ensuring secure communication and data exchange through the "Secure Socket Layer protocol" (SSL) over the internet (Dwivedi et al., 2015). The network of the e-government system has been coded with “Extensible Markup Language”(XML) for executing the SQL statement and query.
The application of the SQL injection helpsin increasing the application confidence and prevents the e-government from security attack (Venkatesh, Sykes, & Venkatraman, 2014). In addition to that, the system will include the data encryption procedure for preventing the unauthorized users for reading sensitive information over the e-government system. The e-government system has its inbuilt key generation algorithm for generating the public key and symmetric key for securing the access control over the e-government.
In the section below, the posed ULM class diagram for the posed enhances e-government system has been provided:
Figure 2: Proposed ULM Class Diagram for enhanced e-Government System
(Source: Created by Author)
The application and integration of the e-government services help in mobilizing the service and official procedure. The effective application of the e-government service allows the country to increase the efficiency of the governmental procedure. Based on the technical issues identified, the proposed system has been developed for enhancing the security concern and reliability of data. The proposed model of the e-government system has allowed in maintaining the security and reliability of data through the connected database and application developed. The application of security measures like SQL injection, three-tier models, and encryption models helped in ensuring the security and protecting the system from security threats. Furthermore, the developed model also helped in ensuring the data wastage and reducing the cost and time for implementation.
$1.$ Abdulkareem, A. K. (2015). Challenges of E-Government Implementation in the Nigerian Public Service. Journal of Creative Writing (ISSN 2410-6259), 1(4),45-56.
$2.$ Bakunzibake, P., Grönlund, Å., & Klein,G. O. (2016). E-Government Implementation in Developing Countries: Enterprise Content Management in Rwanda. In 15th IFIP Electronic Government (EGOV)/8th Electronic Participation (ePart) Conference, Univ Minho, Guimaraes, Portugal, September 5-8, 2016 (pp. 251-259). IOS Press.
$3.$ Bwalya, K. J., Du Plessis, T., & Rensleigh, C. (2014). E-government implementation in Zambia–prospects. Transforming Government: People, Process, and Policy, 8(1), 101-130.
$4.$ Chairunisa, F., Malik, M. T., & Rahman, M. A. (2016). Contextual-Participative e-Government Implementation Model: ACase Study of the Office of Demographic and Citizen Data Records of Makassar. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 7(1 S1), 345.
$5.$ Chatfield, A. T., & AlAnazi, J. (2015). Collaborative governance matters to e-government interoperability: An analysis of citizen-centric integrated interoperable e-government implementation in Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Public Administration in the Digital Age (IJPADA), 2(3), 24-44.
$6.$ Choi, H., Park, M. J., Rho, J. J., & Zo, H. (2016). Rethinking the assessment of e-government implementation indeveloping countries from the perspective of the design–reality gap: Applications in the Indonesian e-procurement system. Telecommunications Policy, 40(7), 644-660.
$7.$ Dwivedi, Y. K., Wastell, D., Laumer, S.,Henriksen, H. Z., Myers, M. D., Bunker, D., ... & Srivastava, S. C. (2015). Research on information systems failures and successes: Status update and future directions. Information Systems Frontiers, 17(1), 143-157.
$8.$ Elbahnasawy, N. G. (2014). E-government, internet adoption, and corruption: an empirical investigation. World Development, 57, 114-126.
$9.$ Irani, Z. (2014). E-government Implementation Factors: A Conceptual Framework. Journal of Modern Accounting and Auditing, 10(2), 241.
$10.$ Joseph, S. R. (2015). Success factors influencing e-government implementation. International Journal of Marketing and Technology, 5(1),127.
$11.$ Khamallag, M. M., Kamala, M. A., & Tassabehji, R. (2016). Digital Government Implementation in Chaotic Environment-Case Study of Libya.
$12.$ Rahman, S., Rashid, N., Yadlapalli, A., & Li (Eva) Yiqun. (2014). Determining Factors of E-Government Implementation: a Multi-criteria Decision-Making Approach. In PACIS (p. 302).
$13.$ Snead, J. T., & Wright, E. (2014). E-government research in the United States. Government Information Quarterly, 31(1), 129-136.
$14.$ Solinthone, P., & Rumyantseva, T.(2016). E-Government Implementation. In MATEC Web of Conferences (Vol. 79,p. 01066). EDP Sciences.
$15.$ Venkatesh, V., Sykes, T. A., & Venkatraman, S. (2014). Understanding e‐Government portal use in rural India: role of demographic and personality characteristics. Information Systems Journal, 24(3), 249-269.
$16.$ Weerakkody, V., Irani, Z., Lee, H., Osman, I., & Hindi, N. (2015). E-government implementation: A bird’s eye view of issues relating to costs, opportunities, benefits and risks. Information systems frontiers, 17(4), 889-915.
$17.$ Wilson, S. C. (2014). e-Government legislation: Implementation issues for programs for low-income people. Government Information Quarterly, 31(1), 42-49.
$18.$ Wirtz, B. W., Weyerer, J. C., Thomas, M.J., & Möller, A. (2015). E-government implementation: Theoretical aspects and empirical evidence. Public Organization Review, 1-20.
$19.$ Zhang, H., Xu, X., & Xiao, J. (2014). Diffusion of e-government: A literature review and directions for future directions. Government Information Quarterly, 31(4),631-636.
$20.$ Ziemba, E., & Papaj, T. (2013, June). A Pragmatic approach to the e-government maturity in Poland-implementation and usage of SEKAP. In European Conference on e-Government (p. 560). Academic Conferences International Limited.